Ibibazo Bakunda Kubaza Kuri COVID -19 N’ibisubizo



COVID-19 ni indwara iterwa na virusi nshya ya korona. Iyi virusi n’indwara yayo ntizari zizwi mbere y’uko iki cyorezo kigaragara mu Kuboza 2019 mu mujyi wa Wuhan mu Bushinwa.
Umuntu wese ufite ibimenyetso cyangwa wahuye n’uwemejwe ko yanduye cyangwa yahuye n’uwo bategereje ko ibizamini byemeza ko yanduye COVID-19 , icyo gihe wahamagara 114, umurongo utishyurwa wa RBC cyangwa ukohereza ubutumwa kuri WhatsAp, nimero +250788202080 kugira ngo bagufashe.
Umuntu wese ufite amakuru yafasha mu gushakisha abahuye n’uwanduye cyangwa wanga nkana kugaragaza ko afite ibimenyetso bya COVID-19 aba abangamiye umutekano w’igihugu kandi agomba guhanwa nkuko amategeko abiteganya
Iyi ndwara yandura iyo umuntu ahuye n'umwuka urimo udutembabuzi uturutse mu mazuru cyangwa mu kanwa by'umuntu wayanduye iyo akoroye cyangwa yitsamuye. Utwo dutembabuzi tugwa ku kintu cyangwa ahantu abantu bakunda gukora. Abantu bandura COVID-19 iyo bakoze kuri bya bintu cyangwa ha hantu nyuma yaho bakikora mu maso, ku mazuru cyangwa ku munwa. Umuntu nanone yandura COVID-19 iyo ahumetse umwuka urimo udutembabuzi uhumetswe n’umuntu wayanduye iyo akoroye cyangwa ahumetse utwo dutembabuzi.
  • Mu kirere: amasaha 3
  • Kuri purasitiki: iminsi 2-3
  • Ku rubaho: iminsi 2-3
  • ku cyuma: iminsi 2-3
  • Ikirahuri: iminsi 2-3
  • Urupapuro/ikarito: Amasaha 24
  • Ibikoze mu ruhu: iminsi 2-3
Igihe Koronavirusi imara itaragaraga ni igihe iyo ndwara yinjiriye mu mubiri kugeza itangiye kugaragaza ibimenyetso. Ugereranyije igihe iyo ndwara imara itaragaragara ni hagati y’umunsi 1 kugera ku minsi 14, akenshi ikunze kugaragara ku minsi itanu. Nihagira igihinduka tuzongera tubibagezeho kuko amakuru agenda yiyongera umunsi ku wundi.
Nkuko amabwiriza yo kuvura iyo ndwara abivuga, umurwayi asezererwa ari uko amaze gupimwa incuro ebyiri zikurikirana, ibyo bipimo bikagaragaza ko yakize mu gihe kitarenze amasaha 24 nyuma yo gukira. Kugeza ubu ubushakashatsi bugaragaza ko hagati yo gutangira kugaragaza ibimenyetso no gukira ku barwayi bafite ibimyenyetso bya COVID-19 byoroheje bimara hafi ibyumweru bibiri. Tuzi ko hari abo ibizamini bya PCR bigaragaza ko bafite iyo virusi iyo bamaze gukira batakigaragaza ibimenyetso; ni yo mpamvu tugomba kongera gupima abarwayi bakize kugira ngo turusheho gusobanukirwa uko basohora virusi ikiri nzima.
Mu rwego rwo gukomeza kurwanya iki cyorezo cya koronavirusi, ni ngombwa kwirinda kugaragaza umuntu wayanduye. Nta mazina cyangwa aderesi z’uwanduye COVID-19 bigomba kumenyeshwa abaturage.
Ushobora kugabanya ibyago byo kwandura no gukwirakwiza COVID-19, wubahiriza ingamba zikurikira:
  • Kuguma mu rugo, kwirinda ingendo zitari ngombwa no kwirinda kujya ahari abantu benshi.
  • Kwambara agapfukamunwa
  • Gukaraba intoki neza kenshi gashoboka ukoresheje amazi meza n’isabuni cyangwa arukoro yabugenewe.
  • Gusiga intera ya metero 1,5 hagati yawe n’undi muntu ukorora cyangwa witsamura.
  • Kwirinda kwikora mu maso, ku mazuru no kumunwa
  • Iyo ukoroye cyangwa witsamuye uri iruhande rw’abandi bantu ugomba gupfuka umunwa n’amazuru ukoresheje ikizigira cy’ukuboko cyangwa agatambaro, hanyuma ugahita ukakajugunya ahabugenewe.
  • Niba ufite umuriro, ukorora cyangwa uhumeka nabi, ugomba kubimenyesha inzego z’ubuzima uhamagara umurongo utishyura wa RBC 114 kugira ngo baguhe amabwiriza ukurikiza.
Minisiteri y’Ubuzima isaba Abanyarwanda kwambara udupfukamunwa igihe bari ahantu hari abantu benshi niba guhana intera bidashoboka. Ikigo k’igihugu gishinzwe imiti n’ibiribwa cyemeje ibigo by’ubucuruzi byemerewe gukora udupfukamunwa mu Rwanda.
Mu gihe bibujijwe guhurira hamwe abantu ari benshi, abayobozi b’amadini bagomba kumenya ko ari abavuga rikijyana bagomba gutanga urugero mu gushyira mu bikorwa aya mabwiriza no kwereka abayoboke babo uko bashobora gukomeza gusenga batari hamwe cyangwa bakoresheje ikoranabuhanga.
Yego, igihe ubizanye yubahiriza amabwiriza ajyanye n’isuku y’umubiri n’iy’ibiribwa. Iyo umaze kwakira ibyo biribwa ugomba gukaraba ukoresheje amazi meza n’isabuni.
Iyo bishoboka ntacyo bitwaye, upfa kubahiriza intera ya metero 1 hagati yawe n’undi muntu, ugomba gukara intoki cyangwa ugakoresha arukoro, kandi ibyo biribwa bigatunganywa neza hubahirizwa isuku mu masoko.
Minisiteri y’Ubuzima isaba buri muntu wese mu Rwanda kwambara agapfukamunwa igihe cyose umuntu ari mu bandi mu rwego rwo kwirinda ikwirakwira rya COVID-19.
Hari abantu bashobora kwandura COVID-19 ariko ntibagaragaze ibimenyetso byayo. Ni ngombwa kwambara agapfukamunwa kugira ngo udasohora amatembabuzi iyo ukoroye n’iyo witsamuye uri mu bandi.
Abantu bashobora kwambara udupfukamunwa dukoze mu mwenda naho udupfukamunwa two kwa muganga tugakomeza gukoreshwa gusa n’abaganga n’abaforomo n’abandi bose bahura n’umurwayi. Gukaraba intoki no guhana intera igihe uri mu bandi ni ingamba zikomeye zidufasha kwirinda COVID-19.
Mbere yo kwambara agapfukamunwa, banza usukure intoki ukoresheje arukoro yagenewe guzisukura cyangwa uzikarabe n’amazi meza n’isabuni. Ambara agapfukamunwa gatwikire umunwa n’amazuru kandi ntihagire umwanya usigara hagati yo mu maso n’agapfukamunwa.
Ugomba kwambara agapfukamunwa mu gihe cy’amasaha 6. Ambara agapfukamunwa kawe ku isura uhereye ku mazuru kugeza munsi y’akananwa. Wikuramo cyangwa ngo umanure agapfukamunwa igihe uri kuvuga, ukoroye cyangwa witsamuye.
Gakuremo neza uturutse inyuma ( irinde gukora ku ruhande rw’imbere rw’agapfukamunwa ); nurangiza kugakuramo ukajugunye ahagenewe kujugunya imyanda. Uhita ukaraba intoki ukoresheje arukoro yagenewe kuzisukura cyangwa ukoreshe amazi meza n’isabuni.
Ugomba kumesa agapfukamunwa kawe, ukakanika nyuma ukagatera ipasi. Ugomba nibura kugira udupfukamunwa tubiri kugira ngo kamwe nukamesa ube ukoresha akandi, ntugakoreshe agapfukamunwa incuro ebyiri.
Ibimenyetso by’ingenzi bya COVID-19 ni ukugira umuriro, umunaniro no gukorora. Hari abarwayi bakunda kumva batameze neza, kugira ububabare, gufungana mu mazuru, kugira ibicurane, kubabara mu muhogo cyangwa gucibwamo. Ibyo bimenyetso bitangira byoroheje ariko bikangenda birushaho gukomera.
Hari abantu bandura ariko ntibagaragaze ibimenyetso kandi bakumva bameze neza. Abenshi muri bo (80%) bakira batiriwe bahabwa ubuvuzi bwihariye.
Ni umuntu wapimwe muri Laboratwari bagasanga yaranduye COVID-19, batitaye ku kuba afite cyangwa adafite ibimenyetso. Hano turagusobanurira uko gupima iyo virusi muri laboratwari bigenda.
Ni umuntu waba yarigeze guhura na kimwe mu bintu bishobora kumukururira ibyago byo kwandura iminsi 2 mbere yuko ukekwaho kwandura cyangwa wemejwe ko yanduye iyo virusi agaragaje ibimenyetso cyangwa nyuma y’iminsi 14 abigaragaje :
  • Kuba yarahuye n’umuntu ukekwaho/bemeje ko yanduye, ku ntera ya 1 m mu gihe kiri hejuru y’iminota 15;
  • Gukora ku muntu ukekwaho/wemejwe ko yanduye;
  • Kurwaza umurwayi ukekwaho/wemejwe ko arwaye COVID-19 utambaye ibigukingira; cyangwa
  • Ibindi byose byagaragaye ko byagukurira ibyago byo kwandura.
Icyitonderwa: ku bantu bemejwe ko banduye ariko batagaragaza ibimenyetso, kugira ngo bavuge ko wahuye na we biakibara bahereye ku minsi 2 mbere kugera ku minsi 14 nyuma y’uko bamufashe ibizamini bikagaragaza ko yanduye
Ugomba gutangaza amakuru ku mugaragaro kandi mu kuri kose ajyanye n’uwagaragayeho ibimenyetso n’abantu yahuye na bo, icyo gihe uzaba urokoye ubuzima bw’abantu benshi. Ku bindi bisobanuro wahamagara 114.
Hari ibihumbi by’ibizamini bya COVID-19 bipimwa buri munsi. Ibyo bizamini bipimirwa muri Laboratwari y’igihugu y’ikitegererezo. Ibizamni bituruka mu mavuriro atandukanye no ku mipaka mu gihugu cyose, bakibanda cyane ku bantu bugarijwe kurusha abandi cyangwa abahuye n’abantu banduye.
Gufata ibizamini bimara amasegonda 30 bakoresheje agakoresho kataryana binjiza mu muhogo. Mu byo bifashisha harimo imyenda ibarinda kwandura, agacupa bashyiramo ikizamini n’agakoresho kariho agapampa bapimisha. Ako gakoresho kariho ipamba ni ko bakoresha bafata amatembabuzi mu muhogo. Ako gatambaro bakabika muri ka gacupa hanyuma bagashyiraho kode y’izina ry’uwafashwe ibizamini bagateraho kashe hanyuma bakabyohereza gupimwa.
Iyo bamaze gupima ibizamini, abakozi ba RBC baraguhamagara. Niba ibisubizo bigaragaza ko utanduye bakoherereza kopi yanditseho igisubizo kuri email yawe cyangwa bakakoherereza ubutumwa bugufi kuri telefoni bitewe n’icyo wahisemo. Umukozi wa RBC ashobora kukuzanira igisubizo cyanditse ku rupapuro. Iyo basanze waranduye, abakozi ba RBC baguha ubujyanama hanyuma bakakubwira igikurikira. Iyo bamaze kumenya aho uri, baraza bakagutwara, bakagushyira ahantu uba uri wenyine, bagatangira kukuvura ibimenyetso
Kugeza ubu Koronavirusi nta muti wihariye igira ukoreshwa mu kuyirinda no kuyivura.
Abanduye iyo virusi bavurwa ibimenyetso bagaragaje. Hari imiti irigukorwaho ubushakashatsi, ikaba izashyirwa mu igeragezwa. Ishami ry’umuryango w’abibumbye ryita ku buzima riri gukorana n’abandi bafatanyabikorwa kugira ngo bihutishe ubwo bushakashatsi.
Abantu bafite izindi ndwara nka diyabete, umuvuduko w’amaraso n’abandi bafite ibibazo bituma batagira ubudahangarwa buhagije nka SIDA, abagore batwite n’abantu bageze mu za bukuru bakunze kugira ibimenyetso bikomeye.
Kuba ikomera kuri bamwe ikaba yoroshye ku bandi bishobora guterwa n’impamvu ebyiri: Iya mbere ni uko ubuzima bw’uwayanduye buhagaze, icya kabiri ni uko virusi igenda yihinduranya ikaba ishobora kugira ubukana ku buryo itera indwara ikomeye, ikaba nanone ishobora kuza yoroheje. Ibimenyetso bya COVID-19 ni ukugira umuriro, umunaniro ukabije, gukorora no guhumeka nabi. Dushingiye ku mibare ituruka mu Bushinwa, 40% by’ibimenyetso by’iyo ndwara biba byoroheje cyane naho 40% biba byoroheje ( ibipimo bya radio byerekana ko ari umusonga), 14% bigaragara ko bikomeye, 4% bigaragara ko bikomeye cyane, naho 2% bigaragara ko bigeze ku rwego rwo kuba byahitana uyirwaye. Abantu bageze mu za bukuru n’abasanzwe bafite izindi ndwara ni bo bazahazwa n’iyo ndwara kurusha abandi.
Oya antibiyotike ntizivura iyo virusi ahubwo zivra bagiteri gusa. Indwara ya Koronavirusi (2019-nCoV) iterwa na virusi, ni yo mpamvu antibiyotike zidakoreshwa mu kuyikumira no kuyivura: Ariko iyo warwaye 2019-nCoV ugashyirwa mu bitaro, ushobora guhabwa antibiyotike kubera ko hari ibindi bimenyetso zishobora kuvura.
Dushingiye ku byagaragajwe muri laboratwari mu bushakashatsi bwakozwe ku nyamaswa, imiti ikurikira ni yo yatoranyijwe: Remdesivir; Lopinavir/Ritonavir; Lopinavir/Ritonavir na Interferon beta-1a; na Chloroquine cyangwa Hydroxychloroquine.
  • Remdesivir yigeze kugeragezwa mbere mu kuvura Ebola. Yagaragaje ko yakora neza mu igeragezwa ryakozwe ku nyamaswa bakoze ku ndwara z’ubuhumekero bita MERS-CoV na SARS ziterwa na Koronavirusi, yagaragaje icyizere cyo kuvura COVID-19.
  • Lopinavir/Ritonavir Ritonavir ni umuti ukoreshwa mu kurwanya SIDA. Kugeza ubu nta kiragaragaza ko wavura COVID-19, MERS, na SRAS cyangwa ngo uzikumire. Ubushakashatsi buwukorwaho bugamije kugaragaza no kwemeza ko hari icyo uwo muti wamara ku muntu urwaye COVID-19. Nubwo ibyagaragajwe n’ibizamini bya laboratwari bigaragaza ko uwo muti ushobora kugira icyo ukora mu kuvura COVID-19, ubushakashatsi ntiburatanga umwanzuro wa burundu.
  • Interferon beta-1a ikoreshwa mu kuvura indwara ifata imyakura yitera sclerosis.
  • Chloroquine na hydroxychloroquine ni imiti igiye kumera kimwe ivura malariya na rubagimpande. Ubushakashatsi bugufi bwakozwe mu Bushinwa no mu Bufaransa bwagaragaje akamaro ka fosufate ya Chloroquine mu kuvura umusonga uterwa na COVID-19 ariko hakenewe ko byemezwa n’ubundi bushakashatsi buzava mu kuwugerageza ku barwayi.
Kwirinda kwegera abandi bikorwa igihe umuntu yaketsweho iyo ndwara ariko nta bimenyetso aragaragaza, akirinda kujya aho abandi bari. Kujya mu kato ni ugufata umuntu ukekwaho iyo ndwara afite kimwe mu bimenyeso bya COVID-19 akajya kuba ahantu ari wenyine.
Abantu banduye COVID-19 bashobora kwanduza abandi nyuma yuko bumva batarwaye, OMS isaba ko abantu banduye COVID-19 bajya mu kato mu gihe cy’ibyumweru bibiri nyuma yuko yumva atakirwaye.